Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's. A cyberphysical system is generally considered to be an embedded called an “ attack surface,” makes them subject to various kinds of threats. have to do with cyber and physical threats or the Internet of Everything? After over 40 .. George Loukas. Cyber-physical attacks: a growing invisible threat. and others published Loukas, George (). Cyber-Physical Attacks. A growing Invisible Threat. Request Full-text Paper PDF. Citations (0). References (0).
Cyber-Physical Attacks - 1st Edition
In computers and computer networks an attack cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf any attempt to expose, alter, disable, destroy, steal or gain unauthorized access to or make unauthorized use of an asset. Depending on context, cyberattacks can be part of cyberwarfare or cyberterrorism. A cyberattack can be employed by nation-states, individuals, groups, society or organizations. A cyberattack may originate from an anonymous source.
A cyberattack may steal, alter, or destroy a specified target by hacking into a susceptible system. Legal experts are seeking to limit the use of the term to incidents causing physical damage, distinguishing it from the more routine data breaches and broader hacking activities.
Cyberattacks have become increasingly sophisticated and dangerous. User behavior analytics and SIEM can be used to help prevent these attacks. Since the late s cyberattacks have evolved several times to use innovations in information technology as vectors for committing cybercrimes. In recent years, the scale and robustness of cyberattacks has increased rapidly, as observed by the World Economic Forum in its report: The increasing dependencies of modern society on information and computers networks both in private and public sectors, including military    has led to new terms like cyber attack and cyberwarfare.
Cyberwarfare utilizes techniques of defending and attacking information and computer networks that inhabit cyberspace, often through a prolonged cyber campaign or series of related campaigns. It denies an opponent's ability to do the same, while employing technological instruments of war to attack an opponent's critical computer systems.
Cyberterrorism, on the other hand, is "the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures such as energy, transportation, government operations or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population". Three factors contribute narayaneeyam song why cyber-attacks are launched against a state or an individual: The spectacularity factor is a measure of the actual damage achieved by an attack, meaning that the attack creates direct losses usually loss of availability or loss of income and garners negative publicity.
On February 8,a Denial of Service attack severely reduced traffic to many major sites, including Amazon, Buy. Vulnerability factor exploits how vulnerable an organization or government establishment is to cyber-attacks. An organization can be vulnerable to a denial of service attack, and a government establishment can be defaced on a web page.
A computer network attack disrupts the integrity or authenticity of data, usually through malicious code that alters program logic that controls data, leading to errors in output. Professional hackers, either working on their own or employed by the government or military service, can find computer systems with vulnerabilities lacking the appropriate security software.
Once found, they can infect systems with malicious code and then remotely control the system or computer by sending commands to view content cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf to disrupt other computers. There needs to be a pre-existing system flaw within the computer such as no antivirus protection or faulty system configuration for the viral code to work.
Many professional hackers will promote themselves to cyberterrorists where a new set of rules govern their actions. Cyberterrorists have premeditated plans and their attacks are not born of rage. They need to develop their plans step-by-step and acquire the appropriate software to carry out an attack. They usually have political agendas, targeting political structures. Cyber terrorists are hackers with a ahang justina mohem nist motivation, their attacks can impact political structure through this corruption and destruction.
As previously stated cyberterrorists attack persons or property and cause enough harm to generate fear. An attack can be active or passive. An attack can be perpetrated by an insider or from outside the organization; . The term "attack" relates to some other basic security terms as shown in the following diagram: A resource both physical or logicalcalled an assetcan have one or more vulnerabilities that can be exploited by a threat agent in a threat action.
As a result, the confidentialityintegrity or availability of resources may be compromised. Potentially, the damage may extend to resources in addition to the one initially identified as vulnerable, including further resources of the organization, and the resources of other involved parties customers, suppliers. The so-called CIA triad is the basis of information security.
The attack can be active when it attempts to alter system resources or affect their operation: A " passive attack " attempts to learn or make use of information from the system but does not affect system resources: A threat is a potential for violation of security, which exists when there is a circumstance, capability, action, or event that could breach security and cause harm. That is, a threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability.
A threat can be either "intentional" i. A set of policies concerned with information security management, the information security management systems ISMShas been developed to manage, according to risk management principles, the countermeasures in order to accomplish to a security strategy set up following rules and regulations applicable in a country.
An attack should led to a security incident i. In other words, a security-relevant system event in which the system's security policy is disobeyed or otherwise breached. The overall picture represents the risk factors of the risk scenario. An organization should make steps to detect, classify and manage security incidents. The first logical step is cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf set up an incident response plan and eventually a computer emergency response team. In order to detect attacks, a number of countermeasures can be set up at organizational, procedural and technical levels.
Computer emergency response teaminformation technology security audit and intrusion detection system are example of these. An attack usually is perpetrated by someone with bad intentions: The attacks can be classified according to their origin: Botnets are used to conduct distributed attacks. Other classifications are according to the procedures used or the type of vulnerabilities exploited: Some attacks are physical: Others are attempts to force changes in the logic used by computers or network protocols in order to achieve unforeseen by the original designer result but useful for the attacker.
Software used to for logical attacks on computers is called malware. In detail, there are a number overgrowth 1986 techniques to utilize in cyber-attacks and a variety of ways to administer them to individuals or establishments on a broader scale.
Attacks are broken down into two categories: Syntactic attacks are straightforward; it is considered malicious software which includes viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. A virus is a self-replicating program that can attach itself to another program or file in order to reproduce. The virus can hide in unlikely locations in the memory of a computer system and attach itself to whatever file it sees fit to execute its code.
It can also change its digital footprint each time it replicates making it harder to track down in the computer. A worm does not need another file or program to copy itself; it is a self-sustaining running program. Worms replicate over a network using protocols. The latest incarnation of worms make use of known vulnerabilities in systems to penetrate, execute their code, and replicate to other systems such as the Code Red II worm that infected more than systems in less than 14 hours.
A Trojan horse is designed to perform legitimate tasks but it also performs unknown and unwanted activity. It can be the basis of many viruses and worms installing onto the computer as keyboard loggers and backdoor software. In a commercial sense, Trojans can be imbedded in trial versions of software and can gather additional intelligence about the target without the person even knowing it happening. All three of these are cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf to attack an individual and establishment through emails, web browsers, chat clients, remote software, and updates.
Semantic attack is the modification and dissemination of correct and incorrect information. Information modified could have been done without the use of computers even though new opportunities can be found by using them.
To set someone into the wrong direction or to cover your tracks, the dissemination of incorrect information can be utilized. There were two such instances between India and Pakistan that involved cyberspace conflicts, started in s.
Earlier cyber attacks came to known as early as in Historical accounts indicated that each country's hackers have been repeatedly involved in attacking each other's computing database system. The number of attacks has grown yearly: According to the media, Pakistan's has been working on effective cyber security system, in a program called the "Cyber Secure Pakistan" CSP.
Within cyberwarfare, the individual must recognize the state actors involved in cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf these cyber-attacks against one another. The two predominant players that will be discussed is the age-old comparison of East versus WestChina's cyber capabilities compared to United States' capabilities. There are many other state and non-state actors involved in cyberwarfare, such as Russia, Iran, Iraq, and Al Qaeda; since China and the U. But in Q2Akamai Technologies reported that Indonesia toppled China with portion 38 percent of cyber attack, a high increase from 21 percent portion in previous quarter.
China set 33 percent and US set at 6. Indonesia dominated the attacking to ports 80 and by about 90 percent. This strategy helps link together network cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf tools and electronic warfare weapons against an opponent's information systems during conflict. They believe the fundamentals for achieving success is about seizing control of an opponent's information flow and establishing information dominance. The predominant techniques that would be utilized during a conflict to gain the upper hand are as follows, the PLA would strike with electronic jammers, electronic deception and suppression techniques to interrupt the transfer processes of information.
They would launch virus attacks or hacking techniques to sabotage information processes, all in the hopes of destroying enemy information platforms and facilities. The PLA's Science of Campaigns noted that one role for cyberwarfare is to create windows of opportunity for other forces to operate without detection or with a lowered risk of counterattack by exploiting the enemy's periods of "blindness", "deafness" or "paralysis" created by cyber-attacks.
The PLA conduct regular training exercises in a variety of environments cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf the use of cyberwarfare tactics and techniques in countering such tactics if it is employed against them.
Faculty research has been focusing on designs for rootkit usage and detection for their Kylin Operating System which helps to further train these individuals' cyberwarfare techniques. China perceives cyberwarfare as a deterrent to nuclear weapons, possessing the ability for greater precision, leaving fewer casualties, and allowing for long cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf attacks. In the West, the United States provides a different "tone of voice" when cyberwarfare is on the tip of everyone's tongue.
The United States provides security plans strictly in the response to cyberwarfare, basically going on the defensive when they are being attacked by devious cyber methods. In the U. In recent years, a new department was created to specifically tend to cyber cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat pdf, this department is known as Cyber Command. Cyber Command is a military subcommand under US Strategic Command and is responsible for dealing with threats to the military cyber infrastructure.
Individuals at Cyber Command must pay attention to state and non-state actors who are developing cyberwarfare capabilities in conducting cyber espionage and other cyber-attacks against the nation and its allies. Cyber Command seeks to be a deterrence factor to dissuade potential adversaries from attacking the U. Three prominent events took place which may have been catalysts in the creation of the idea of Cyber Command.
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Anita Lavorgna; Loukas, George C yber -P hysical A ttacks. A growing I nvisible T hreatPolicing: Cyber-physical attacks can be broadly defined as security breaches in cyberspace that adversely affect physical space p.
Although this concept is not new, as our world relies more and more on the integration among the cyber and the physical space, over the last decade such attacks have increasingly been considered as key threats for a variety of targets, ranging from private and industrial automation devices to critical national infrastructures and even life-saving medical devices.
The one block radius we on hidden of cyber-physical systems is a major challenge in our society, as breaches might result in dramatic events think about a gas pipeline valve that might be sabotaged via a cyber attack. Throughout its seven chapters, Loukas' book provides an excellent overview on cyber-physical security, an under-investigated topic destined to become exponentially relevant, given our dependence on Most users should sign in with their email address.
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